Polar Oceanography. Physical Science
Total primary production was estimated using Sea WiFS estimate of surface chlorophyll, sea surface temperature, surface irradiance and a temperature-dependent more A simple representation of microbial loops and the changes in food web structure with decreasing rates of nutrient input from right to left. This figure, based on Azam et al. A conceptual diagram showing the current concept of the predominate food web structure in the pelagic water column.
Recognition of the role of microbes has added a suite of new trophic levels to the classic "diatom-zooplankton-fish" food chain.
Organisms more One of the large gelatinous organisms, Deepstaria enigmatica, that have been recently found to be very abundant in mesopelagic waters of the world ocean. Powered by Wood River Media, Inc. June Four assistant directorships were established for Research, Education, Institutional Programs, and National and International Programs.
Oceanography except biological oceanography remained in the Environmental Sciences Division, but there were several marine-related elements in the Office of the Assistant Director for National and International Programs. On October 1, responsibility for oceanographic ship operation support was transferred from the Research Directorate to the National and International Programs Directorate to provide initial program development in support of the National Oceanographic Laboratory System concept.
The history of events relating to ship operations may be found in the contributions of Johrde, Toye, and Byrne in this volume. IDOE was organized into four programs. This completed the four subdisciplinary science structure that has remained stable through fiscal year Many sections became divisions, including those in this directorate.
From the outset, there were in reality only four programs, in the four component subdisciplines, and four separate budgets, but for the next two years these eight programs appeared on official listings, creating considerable confusion within the community. Since , the structure of the division has remained unchanged up to the time of writing, with the minor exception that the technology development component in OCFS was transferred into OSRS as the Ocean Technology and Interdisciplinary Coordination Program.
The transfer was made because over the previous decade it had become clear that technology development was mostly in service of research and frequently grants were jointly funded with one of the research programs. Thus, since , there have been five programs in OSRS. There will be much history eventually written about the development of the U.
Global Change Research Program from to the present, and the gradual but very significant increase in budgets within OCE over this period. Only one element of this program, however, has yet been brought to completion the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere program; see Lambert in this volume , and several are still in their early stages.
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National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Search term. Michael R. Plate 1 A hydrothermal vent community with the giant tubeworm Riftia pachyptila.
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Plate 2 Global estimates of export or new primary production for January top and July bottom. Plate 3a A simple representation of microbial loops and the changes in food web structure with decreasing rates of nutrient input from right to left. Plate 3b A conceptual diagram showing the current concept of the predominate food web structure in the pelagic water column. Plate 4 One of the large gelatinous organisms, Deepstaria enigmatica, that have been recently found to be very abundant in mesopelagic waters of the world ocean.
Institut Méditerranéen d'Océanologie
Plate 6 drawn by Mike Dormer top I confess to a certain nostalgia for the days when the ONR princes dispensed their largess to a few ocean courtiers. Biological Oceanography 2. Oceanic Biology 3. Chemical Oceanography 4. Marine Chemistry 5. Seafloor Processes 6.
Submarine Geology and Geophysics 7. Physical Oceanography 8. Ocean Dynamics From the outset, there were in reality only four programs, in the four component subdisciplines, and four separate budgets, but for the next two years these eight programs appeared on official listings, creating considerable confusion within the community.
References Bush, V. Science — The Endless Frontier. England, J. NSF Report Polar Science Center. Applied Physics Laboratory. University of Washington.
Box Seattle, WA Voice: Fax: E-mail: PSCAdmin apl. High Latitude Dynamics Our overarching goals are to study and understand the physical processes in the high latitude oceans, including large-scale circulation, shelf-basin interactions, and water mass formation; linkages between polar oceans and the lower latitudes; and the role of polar processes in climate.
Alexeev, G. Belchansky, I. It is currently not clear yet, as to what extent anthropogenic environmental changes will impact on structure and functioning of the polar marine ecosystem.
The research group of Prof. Meyer attempts to close these knowledge gaps by investigating pelagic key species that significantly influence structure and functioning of polar food webs. Such species in the South Polar Sea are, for example, the Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba , the gelatinous species Salpa thompsoni as well as the amphipod Themisto gaudichaudii.
In the North Polar Sea, the krill species Thysanoessa inermis and various copepod- and amphipod species occupy key positions in the food web.